Interior Artist Bibliography

Interior Artist Bibliography

Figure 1 Sands, E. (1910-1) The Chintz Couch [Oil paint on board] 46.5×38.5cm. Tate Modern. At: (accessed: 16/4/17)

Figure 2 Ratcliffe, W. (1918) Attic Room [Oil Paint on Plywood] 51×50.8cm. Tate Modern. At: (accessed: 16/4/17)

Figure 3 Hockney, D.  Blue Terrace [Oil on Canvas] Tate Modern. At: (accessed: 16/4/17)

Figure 4 Hopper, E (1952) Morning Sun [Paint on Canvas] At: (accessed: 16/4/17)

Figure 5 Freeman, J. (2016) Studio Interior #1 [Print making] At: (accessed: 16/4/17)

Research Point – Domestic Interiors

Research Point – Domestic Interiors

When first given this exercise to research domestic interior artists, I thought it would be quite difficult to find many artists or images – but I discovered that it was quite the opposite. I found of an abundance of artists and images, I struggled to limit what it was I wanted to share. Here are a few images and thoughts as to why I chose them.

Figure 1: Sands, E (1910-1) The Chintz Couch, [Oil on wood] Tate Modern

Ethel Sands was known as a very gracious hostess, this she got from her parents. The image above shows a lavish couch with pictures on the wall framing the scene. The muted blue tones of the paint helps the vase of white lilies pop. At first glance I thought the painting was a mixture of blues and yellows but upon further study of this image I found out it was the background of the wood showing through. This minimalist approach was inspiring to show that you don’t have to fill the whole canvas to make an impact. I love how with the small band of white across the couch implies that there is a small opening in the closed curtains to the left.

Figure 2, Ratcliffe, W 1918. Attic Room [Oil painting on plywood] Tate Modern

William Ratcliffe was well know for painting interiors of his and family’s homes. The image above is the attic room he was staying in whilst visiting his brother. Before he became a painter he worked for a wallpaper design company. this knowledge and technique is shown through the continuity of the wallpaper and the reflection in the patterned rug. The dusky light shining through the window looks like it could be early morning and is giving a dusky rose tone to the entire room. This painting was done in 1918 which was post war. The minimalist style reflects this time as the war was ending and people often didn’t have much to in the way of lavish possessions. The room consists of purely the essentials. This is also shown through the fact that Ratcliffe only has he boots on show and no other clothes flung over the chair. To me this implies that Ratcliffe is a very, organised neat person.

Figure 3 Hockney, D  [paint on canvas] Tate Modern

David Hockney’s simplicity in his child like painting is alluring. His use of colour is exciting, the small flex of yellow imply the weather is warm and bright, but the blue of the terrace gives the appeal that it’s cool away from the hot sun. The overflow of giant leaves trying to onto the terrace adds to the shade appeal.

Figure 4 Hopper, E (1952) Morning Sun [Oil on Canvas]

I really like this picture of Edward Hopper’s Morning Sun, especially as most of my interior sketches are simple. The woman in the pink slip seems to be looking far off into the distance as though longing for something beyond the run of the mill life that the building out the window reflects. It was looking at this painting that I decided I wanted to try and get a section of window in my composition giving the partial view of what was outside.

Figure 5 Freeman, J 2016 Studio Interior #1. Woodcut Print

John Freeman is an artist, graphic designer. I really enjoyed this abstract design of his art studio from all the different angles. I really want to try and experiment with more abstract images. I really appreciate the technique and the disciple of the print work design and how with the different perspectives the compositions makes it look like an abstract guide to his studio. Despite it being abstract you can still get a feel of the layout of the room and how it feels to Freeman.

Positive and Negative Space Bibliography

Positive and Negative Space Bibliography

Figure 1: Hume, G. (1999) Water Painting [household paints on aluminium panel] 30.5 x 24.4cm Tate Modern, not on display At:  (accessed: 08/03/17)

Manchester, E. (2002) Gary Hume: Water Painting Summary At:  (accessed: 08/03/17)

Figure 2: Troufa, C. (2012) Regresso [acrylic on canvas] 150 x 100cm. Private collection. At: (accessed: 08/03/17)

Figure 3: Gabel, J. (2003) British Father at a 3-yr-old’s birthday party where everyone is drinking socially [pencil on paper] at: Downs, et al (2007) Drawing Now: Between the Lines of Contemporary Art. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. (Booked owned by blog writer.)


Positive and Negative Space

Positive and Negative Space

Positive space in art is considered the subject matter in which you are drawing whether it be still life, portrait or landscape. The negative space is the space around and in between the subject matter. whilst researching positive and negative space and how the two compliment each other I came across a few artists who used negative space to tell a narrative or even help enhance the subject matter.

Figure 1: Gary Hume – Water Painting 1999, household paint on aluminium panel. 30.5 x 24.4cm

The first artist I looked at was Gary Hume. This picture really stood out to me with regards to the negative space as the subject matters are only a thin white painted line drawing. I think the composition of the different areas of the women overlapping create a confusing yet beautiful story. The white paint in greatly contrasted with the green background that is shown throughout the whole painting.

When reading about this work I came across this statement: ‘Varying hairstyles are the only indication of difference between women whose stylised bodies seem identical, the representation of an idealised form.’ – Elizabeth Mancheter, 2002

I disagree with this as I am struggling to see the hair styles. I believe it is the facial expressions separating the women, however I agree with the idealism that all the bodies seem identical which can either represent that he sees all women for the female creation that they are and all women are the same, or that society implies that there is only one way to look and forces women to look the same, meaning women disort themselves or change themselves like a reflection in water hence the ‘water painting’.

Figure 2: Cristina Troufa 2012 – ‘Regresso’ 150 x 100cm

Cristina Troufa is a Portuguese artists who is most famous for her self portraits.  Regresso; which is the name the above artwork, in Portuguese means return. Troufa’s signature style of of only painting part of herself (mostly flesh) is not lost in this painting. She often leaves her clothing the same colour as the background which in itself is implying that she is fading into nothing. in this instance she has decided to leave the dress the same colour as the hole with ladder in it. This implies that she is ‘returning’ to the colourless background or hole that she may have once climbed out of. Troufa’s use of blues I find very appealing in her narrative of how she is feeling in this painting. Blue is normally considered, cold or could even represent a ‘blue’ period in her life which could be depression. She cleverly leaves the blue pale so that the viewer can still understand her emotions but can also reflect their own into the art work and connect on a personal level as we have all felt ‘blue’ at some point or another. I think this is a great use of negative space that brings this artwork alive and hope to be able to insert this into my work as I go forward.

Figure 3: Jeff Gabel – British Father at a 3-yr-old’s birthday party where everyone is drinking socially, 2003

As I was looking at my ‘Drawing Now: Between the lines of Contemporary Art’ book I cam across the above drawing. Gabel had written the title of the artwork at the bottom of the paper in pencil. I found this a rather funny and genius use of negative space. The father’s head and bottle is floating and off to the side of the paper which gives you plenty of room to imagine the scene described.

When looking at the father’s expression you can literally draw in the rest of the scene yourself. The parents a little red faced and laughing whilst they ignore their overactive, sugar-hyped children running around uncontrollably and this father sat amongst it all looking directly at the viewer with an almost silent plea. I find this interesting how Gabel was able to understand that he didn’t need to do anything to the negative space. A clever way of trying to make his artwork interactive. I hope to be able to know and understand when best to leave negative space in my own work so that it does not override my subject mater.

I hope like all the artists above to find the perfect balance between the positive and negative spacing in order to improve my drawing as I continue through this next assignment.

Still Life Bibliography

Still Life Bibliography

Quote – (SD) Still Life. At:   accessed: 03/03/17

Figure 1:

Vosmaer, J. (1613) A Vase of Flowers. [oil on board] 85.1 x 62.5cm. At: New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art September 18th 2007 – January 6th 2008

URL:   accessed: 01/03/17

Figure 2:

Claesz, P. (1628) Still Life with a skull and Writing Quill. [oil on wood] 24.1 x 35.9cm. At: New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art September 18th 2007 – January 6th 2008

URL:      accessed: 01/03/17

Figure 3:

Cezanne, P. (1892-3) Still Life with water Jug [oil paint on canvas] 53 x 71.1cm. At: London: Tate Modern (Not on display)

URL:     accessed: 03/03/17

Figure 4:

Picasso, P. (1913) Bottle of Vieux Marc, Glass, Guitar and Newspaper [printed papers and ink on paper] 46.7 x 62.5cm. At: London: Tate Modern

URL:     accessed: 03/03/17

Figure 5:

Buhler, A (2011) Still Life with Lettuce [oil pastel on paper] size: unknown private collection

URL:      accessed 03/03/17


Still Life Research

Still Life Research

‘In the hierarchy of genres (or subject types) for art established in the seventeenth century by the French Academy, still life was ranked at the bottom – fifth after history painting, portraiture, genre painting (scenes of everyday life) and landscape. Still life and landscape were considered lowly because they did not involve human subject matter.’ ( S.D)
Originally the still-life painting began in the Northern, Spanish areas of the 17th century. before this still life was considered for botanical books and pages to document items/flowers and plants. Artists began to use still life as their art form during a very religious, affluential time, most pictures would reflect this as it would be a mix of natural and man-made objects together. Although the composition may sound random, there was so much more meaning behind this art and many peices contained warning of life and mortality. Through this article I will be annotating a few pieces of art work from the 17th century right to modern artists and how the development of the genre has changed throughout the ages.


Figure 1 – A Vase With Flowers, Vosmaer, J, 1613 85.1 x 62.5cm

Vosmaer was considered a pioneer of still life. He shows amazing control and technique of the oil paints and uses vibrant colours to attract the eye to the bloomage of flowers. If you look closer, however towards the bottom of the boquet the flowers are wilting and starting to die, this could be symbolic to mean that everything natural; no matter how beautiful dies, eventually wilts and then dies.

Figure 2 – Still Life with Skull and Writing Quill, Claesz, P, 1628 24.1×35.9cm

Skulls were used as a reminder of mortality and that life is short. In the 17th century if you had writing equipment it implied that you were wealthy and well educated. I like this painting as the wine glass is placed strategy giving deeper meaning to the composition. It makes me think that Claesz was trying convey the message of affluence and drink was the end of this particular writer – the books are worn and closed implying they have not been opened or written in for a while as the writer has been enjoying his success. But the skull which is a main feature continues to say that all things must end and all things run out for example, the wine glass is empty, the quill is out of ink, the lamp has no oil.

As you can see traditionally the method for still life was normally oil paintings and a very realistic approach in their interpretation. Artists also used still life as a way of showcasing their talent and procession of the ordinary and mundane objects of every day.

Figure 3 – Still Life with Water Jug, Cezanne, P, 1892-3 53×71.1cm

Cezanne was quite obsessed with drawing still life objects over and over again. He feels the one view point was not enough as it did not give an artist’s unique perspective as a result he was often draw the same still life from several angles as he has done with the water jug. It gives and jaunted and almost disconnected look to still life. Unlike the masters of old Cezanne didn’t usually have hidden messages with the items he chose, however with his choice of several view points in one painting sends a message that not everything is as it seems. He often did not finish his paintings as a way of showing that everything is a ‘work in progress’ and there can be more connection and pattern between the shapes and movements of our regular every day objects.


Figure 4 – Bottle of Vieux, Marc Galss, Guitar and Newspaper, Picasso, P, 1913 46.7×62.5cm

Cubism is seen as the most influencial movement in art in the 20th century – why – because it gives such a unique perspective on the ordinary. It can simplify what masters spent their whole careers perfecting and it opened the the door to almost endless possibilities of what can be done and created with art. Picasso demonstrates this with the above image. the traditional medium of oil paints was not used for this piece but paper and ink. In it’s simplicity you can see the basic shape of the guitar and newpaper which automatically shows the viewer they are looking at a still life. The composition however makes the viewer use their imagination and try to connect all the disconnected items together, to help their minds makes sense of what can at a first glance look like chaos.

Figure 5 – Still Life with Lettuce, Buhler, A, 2011. (size: unknown)

Buhler is a modern artists who works mainly with oil pastels. she shows great skill and understanding of the medium. As you can see the colours are a little more unnatural than when still life started in the 16th century. If you look at the dark lines you can see the influence of the pop art movement between the contract of the outlines and the block colours.
Throughout the ages of art, still life has shown to be a useful and effective way of trying new techniques as well as being a way of the artist to convey a message. In modern day people have become a lot more health conscious and I feel this shows in Buhler’s still life depicting fruit and vegetables. the way she compsitions the work by zooming in to the items and having them fall off the page implies that shes really wanting us to focus on the healthy food and maybe get the viewer wanting to eat healthier as a result.
Still life will continue to be a great way to help artists develop, style, composition and medium. It is also a great way to lean the contrast of light and shadow on items and how this adds to the texture and atmoshpere of a peice of art work.

Odilon Redon

Odilon Redon

Odilon Redon was starting his career when ‘impressionism’ was newly established throughout the world of art, however Redon did not conform to this, he believed it was still too determined by the nature of what was seen. Redon enjoyed drawing and painting within the movement known as ‘symbolism’, where things drawn within in his art was symbolic in meaning.


Figure 1 – Odilon Redon – Two Trees, 1875. Charcoal on paper – image 49.5 x 63.5cm

Redon worked majorly in charcoal and etching. He very rarely if ever used colour in his art as he liked to give a dream state feel to his work and it is debated even to this present day that we do not dream in colour but in black and white. It wasn’t until the 1890s that Redon began to experiment with colour and paint which then dominated his pieces for the rest of his career.

This charcoal drawing above – ‘Two Trees’ is a great example of this dream like state he used to convey in his drawings. He uses large amounts of shading to give this work a darker, mysterious yet intriguing feel overall. He demonstrates great technique in the finer areas, such as the shrubs on the ground and on the trees. By using a huge range of tones to his lines his conveys the rough texture of the bark that you can almost feel. Although this work in named two trees my eyes are automatically drawn between the trees and gives me a sense of wonder of what lies beyond what we can see. He is able to succeed in this by his shading and use of textures that draws the eye in and engages the brain to imagine.


Figure 2 – Odilon Redon – Fear, 1866. Etching – sheet, 25.4 x 32.6cm image, 11.2 x 20cm

Although a different medium to the ‘Two trees’, ‘Fear’ is just as striking. he manges to uses harsh lines to convey a very bleak and hostile environment before the rider. His use of the angles, and dark lines he uses to show the choppy sharp shapes of the landscape does make the viewer feel unease and possibly fear of what else lies ahead.


Figure 3 – Odilon Redon – Melancholy, 1876 – charcoals, guoache, pastels & chalk – image 36.8 x 35.7cm

‘Melancholy’ is a mixed media piece, but Redon continues to master both the shading and technique to help give you a sense of great sadness and lack of purpose the woman may be feeling.

I have chosen to look at three of Redon’s work, with each drawing he has used a different medium, he shows great skill and understanding of his tools and materials by being able to get similar effects throughout each piece. His use of lines is crucial in helping convey tone as well as a 3 dimensional perspective of three very different landscapes. Though showing great detail in his technique and understanding, there is something simple to each of his drawings. I feel this is a way for Redon to help convey what he wants to say as well as leaving enough to the imagination for the viewer to be able to relate or connect to his work. When describing his process Redon said:

 “I have often, as an exercise and as a sustenance, painted before an object down to the smallest accidents of its visual appearance; but the day left me sad and with an unsatiated thirst. The next day I let the other source run, that of imagination, through the recollection of the forms and I was then reassured and appeased.”

Redon used his imagination and feeling to complete his works, you can see that each line and shading he puts into place is done with emotion. It is hard not to see the passion he had in every stroke. Redon is a great example to look at whilst going forward with my work. He is able to get the shape of his subject as well as emotion onto the paper, with his cross-hatching ans shading that I wish to include into my process and hopefully show in my further work to come.